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Psychology terms starting with S

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s S s 2 S and M S data s factor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) S-shaped curve s-structure S– S–(R–O) model S–O association S–O–R psychology S–R S–R learning model S–R psychology S–R–O learning model S–S learning model S/N S+ S1 S2 SA SAB saccade saccadic dysmetria saccadic speed saccadic time saccule sacral division sacral nerve sacred disease SAD sadism sadness sadomasochism sadomasochistic personality SADS Saethre–Chotzen syndrome safe compartment safe sex safety and health education safety behavior safety device safety engineering safety need safety psychology safety signal sagittal sagittal fissure Saint Dymphna’s disease Saint Vitus’s dance salary compression salicylate salicylism salience hypothesis salient saline saliromania salivary gland salivary reflex salivation Salpêtrière salpingectomy saltation saltatory conduction salty Salvia SAM same-sex marriage SAMHSA sample sample correlation coefficient sample distribution sample mean sample reliability sample size sample space sample standard deviation sample variance sampling sampling bias sampling design sampling distribution sampling error sampling frame sampling theory sampling unit sampling variability sampling with replacement sampling without replacement samsara sanatorium sanction Sandimmune sandwich generation Sanfilippo syndrome sangue dormido sanguine type sanitarium sanity Sansert Saphris sapid stimulus Sapir–Whorf hypothesis Sapphism SAR workshop Sarafem sarcoma SAS SAT Satanism satellite clinic satellite male satiation satiety satiety center satiety mechanism satisfaction of instincts Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) satisfice satisficer satori saturated model saturation saturation scale satyriasis sauce béarnaise effect savant savings method sawtooth waves saxitoxin (STX) SB SBS scaffolding scala media scala tympani scala vestibuli scalability scalar scale scale attenuation scale development scale error Scale of Prodromal Symptoms (SOPS) scale parameter scaling scalogram Scanlon plan scanning scanning hypothesis scanning speech scapegoat theory scapegoating scapular reflex SCAT scato- (scat-) scatologia scatophilia scatter scattering scatterplot scavenging scedasticity scenario analysis scenario-based design scent marking Schachter–Singer theory schadenfreude Schaffer collateral Schaie’s stages of cognitive development Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS) schedule of reinforcement schedule-induced polydipsia scheduled awakening scheduled drug Scheffé test schema schema therapy schematic classification schematic image schematic representation scheme schizencephalic schizo- (schiz-) schizoaffective disorder schizoid schizoid personality disorder schizoid phenomena schizoid–manic state schizoidism schizomania schizophrenia Schizophrenia Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT) schizophrenic episode schizophrenic reaction schizophrenic thinking schizophreniform disorder schizophreniform psychosis schizophrenogenic schizophrenogenic mother schizotaxia schizotypal personality disorder schizotypy Schmid–Fraccaro syndrome Schnauzkrampf scholastic acceleration scholastic achievement test Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) Scholasticism school School and College Ability Test (SCAT) school avoidance school counseling school grade school integration school neuropsychology school phobia school psychology school readiness school refusal school truancy school-ability test school-activity record School-Age Cognitive Battery school-based intervention schooling Schröder staircase Schultze’s acroparesthesia schwa Schwann cell schwannoma schwannomatosis sciatic nerve science scientific explanation scientific jury selection scientific management scientific method scientific psychology scientific rationality scientific reasoning scientific revolution scientism scientist-practitioner model Scientology scieropia SCII scintillating scotoma sciosophy scissors gait SCL-90–R sclera sclero- (scler-) sclerosis SCN scoliosis scope of attention scopo- (scop-) scopolamine scopophilia score score band score equating scorer reliability scoring scoterythrous vision scoto- (scot-) scotoma scotomization scotophilia scotopic scotopic stimulation scotopic vision scotopsin scramble competition scree plot screen defense screen magnifier screen memory screen reader screen touch matching screening screening audiometry screening experiment screening sample screening test screening tests for young children script script analysis script theory scrivener’s palsy scrupulosity scrying SCU sculpting SD SDAT SDO SDS SDT SE seamstress’s cramp search search asymmetry search image search of associative memory (SAM) Seashore audiometer Seashore Measures of Musical Talent Seashore Rhythm Test seasickness seasonal affective disorder (SAD) seasonal mood disorder seasonal variation seasonality effect seat of mind Seattle Longitudinal Study Seckel syndrome seclusiveness second cranial nerve second messenger second moment second quartile second sight second sleep second-degree relative second-generation antipsychotic second-order conditioning second-order factor second-order interaction second-order language second-order neuron second-order schedule second-person perspective second-rank symptoms secondary aging secondary amenorrhea secondary appraisal secondary attention secondary auditory cortex (A2) secondary care secondary cause secondary circular reaction secondary control secondary coping secondary data secondary defense symptoms secondary deviance secondary disposition secondary drive secondary elaboration secondary emotion secondary environment secondary gain secondary group secondary gustatory cortex secondary hypertension secondary identification secondary memory (SM) secondary mood disorder secondary motivation secondary motor cortex secondary narcissism secondary need secondary oocyte secondary personality secondary position secondary prevention secondary process secondary quality secondary reinforcement secondary reinforcer secondary repression secondary reward secondary sensory area secondary sensory ending secondary sex characteristic secondary somatosensory area (S2) secondary spermatocyte secondary stuttering secondary suggestibility secondary symptoms secondary task secondary task methodology secondary taste cortex secondary territory secondary traumatization secondary visual cortex (V2) secondary visual system secretin secretion SECs sect section Section 504 plan sectioning secular secular humanism secure attachment secure base secure treatment setting security security blanket security operations security theory SED sedative sedative occupation sedative-, hypnotic-, or anxiolytic-induced persisting amnestic disorder sedative, hypnotic, and anxiolytic drug sedative, hypnotic, or anxiolytic abuse sedative, hypnotic, or anxiolytic dependence sedative, hypnotic, or anxiolytic intoxication sedative, hypnotic, or anxiolytic withdrawal sedative, hypnotic, or anxiolytic withdrawal delirium seduction SEE SEEKING system segment segmental reflex segmentation segmented regression segmented sleep segregated model segregation segregation analysis seismic communication seizure seizure disorder selected group selection selection bias selection invariance selection model selection pressure selection ratio selection research selection test selectionist brain theory selective action selective adaptation selective agent selective amnesia selective attention selective breeding selective cell death selective dropout selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) selective inattention selective information processing selective learning selective listening selective mutism selective optimization with compensation selective perception selective permeability selective placement selective potentiation selective rearing selective reminding test selective response selective retention selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor selective silence selective value selegiline self self as agent self as known self as observer self psychology self-abasement self-abuse self-acceptance self-activity self-actualization self-administration self-advocacy self-affirmation self-affirmation theory self-alienation self-analysis self-appraisal self-assertion self-assessment self-assessment motive self-awareness self-awareness theory self-care self-care children self-categorization theory self-censure self-clarity self-compassion self-completion theory self-complexity self-concept self-concept test self-confidence self-confrontation self-conscious emotion self-consciousness self-consistency self-consistency perspective self-consistency theory self-construal self-contradiction self-control self-control technique self-control therapy self-correction self-criticism self-debasement self-deception self-defeating behavior self-defeating personality disorder self-definition self-demand schedule self-denial self-derogation self-desensitization self-destructiveness self-determination self-determination theory self-detoxification self-development self-differentiation self-directedness self-discipline self-disclosure self-discovery self-discrepancy self-dynamism self-effacement self-efficacy self-enhancement self-enhancement motive self-enucleation self-esteem self-esteem stability self-evaluation self-evaluation maintenance model self-evaluative emotion self-evident self-examination self-exciting circuit self-expression self-extension self-extinction self-feeding self-focus self-focused coping self-fulfilling prophecy self-gratification self-guide self-handicapping self-help self-help clearinghouse self-help group self-hypnorelaxation self-hypnosis self-ideal self-ideal Q sort self-identification self-identity self-image self-image bias self-inflicted wound self-injurious behavior self-insight self-instructional imagery self-instructional training self-interest self-inventory self-love self-managed reinforcement self-management self-management therapy self-medication self-monitoring self-monitoring observation self-mutilation self-object (selfobject) self-object transference (selfobject transference) self-objectification self-organizing system self-perception self-perception theory self-presentation self-preservation instinct self-promotion self-protection self-punishment self-rating self-rating scale self-realization self-reference self-reference effect self-referral self-reflection self-regulated learning self-regulation self-regulatory resources theory self-reinforcement self-relevance self-report self-report bias self-report inventory self-repudiation self-respect self-reward self-righting self-schema self-selected groups design self-selection bias self-serving bias self-standards model self-statement self-statement modification self-statement training (SST) self-stereotyping self-stimulation self-suggestion self-synchrony self-system self-talk self-terminating search self-test self-transcendence self-understanding self-validation factor self-verbalization self-verification motive self-view self-worth selfish gene hypothesis selfish herd selfishness SEM sem- semantic semantic anomia semantic aphasia semantic code semantic counseling semantic dementia semantic differential semantic dissociation semantic encoding semantic fluency semantic generalization semantic jargon semantic knowledge semantic memory semantic network semantic paradox semantic paraphasia semantic priming semantic primitive semantic satiation semantic therapy semanticity semantics semasiology semeiosis semen semenarche semi-interquartile range semicircular canals semiconscious seminal seminal analysis seminal discharge seminal duct seminal fluid seminal vesicle seminiferous tubule semiology semiosis (semeiosis) semiotic function semiotic movement semiotics semipartial correlation semipermeable membrane semistructured interview semitone semivowel sender senescence senile senile dementia senile dementia of the Alzheimer’s type (SDAT) senile miosis senile plaque senility senior citizen senium sensate focus sensation sensation level sensation seeking sensation threshold sensation type sensation unit Sensation-Seeking Scale (SSS) sensationalism sense sense datum sense distance sense experience sense impression sense modality sense of coherence sense of equilibrium sense of presence sense of self sense organ sense-ratios method sensibilia sensibility sensible sensitive sensitive dependence sensitive period sensitive soul sensitive zone sensitivity sensitivity analysis sensitivity training sensitization sensor sensorimotor sensorimotor aphasia sensorimotor arc sensorimotor cortex sensorimotor intelligence sensorimotor memory sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) sensorimotor stage sensorineural deafness sensorineural lesion sensorium sensorium commune sensory sensory acuity sensory adaptation sensory amimia sensory amusia sensory aphasia sensory aprosodia sensory area sensory ataxia sensory awareness training sensory bias sensory circle sensory conditioning sensory consciousness sensory conversion symptoms sensory cortex sensory cue sensory deficit sensory deprivation sensory discrimination sensory disorder sensory drive sensory engineering sensory epilepsy sensory evoked potential sensory exploitation sensory extinction sensory field sensory gating sensory homunculus sensory inattention sensory input sensory integration sensory integration dysfunction sensory intensity sensory interaction sensory leakage sensory memory sensory modality Sensory Modality Assessment and Rehabilitation Technique (SMART) sensory modulation dysfunction sensory neglect sensory nerve sensory neuron sensory organ sensory organization sensory overload sensory paralysis sensory pathway Sensory Perceptual Examination sensory preconditioning sensory processing disorder sensory projection area sensory psychophysiology sensory receptor organ sensory register sensory root sensory spot sensory stimulation sensory substitution sensory summation sensory suppression sensory system sensory test sensory transduction sensory-information store (SIS) sensual sensum sensuous sensus communis sentence-completion test sentence-repetition test sentence-verification task sentience sentient sentimentality sentinel behavior sentinel event SEP separated display separation anxiety separation anxiety disorder separation distress separation strategy separation–individuation sepsis sept septal area septicemia septum septum pellucidum sequela sequence effect sequential analysis sequential design sequential effect sequential processing sequential regression sequential sampling Serax serendipity Serentil serial anticipation method serial behavior serial correlation serial exhaustive search serial interpretation serial killer serial learning serial memory serial monogamy serial position curve serial position effect serial processing serial recall serial reproduction serial response serial search serial-exploration method serial-memory search seriation serious emotional disturbance (SED) SERM Sernyl Seroquel serotonergic serotonin serotonin agonist serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor serotonin antagonist serotonin receptor serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) serotonin reuptake transporter serotonin syndrome serotonin transporter (SERT) serous otitis media SERT Sertoli cell sertraline service delivery system servomechanism SES sessile set SET set point set theory set zone set-level compatibility effect set/reset model setwise regression SEU seven plus or minus two seventh cranial nerve severe mental retardation severity error sex sex change sex characteristic sex chromatin sex chromosome sex counseling sex determination sex differences sex differentiation sex discrimination sex distribution sex drive sex education sex feeling sex hormone sex hygiene sex identification sex identity sex instinct sex object sex offense sex preselection sex ratio sex reassignment sex reversal on Y (SRY) sex role sex steroid sex therapy sex trafficking sex typing sex-chromosomal aberration sex-influenced character sex-limited sex-linked sex-negativity sex-positivity sex-role reversal sex-role stereotype sexism sexological examination sexology sexual abuse sexual addiction sexual adjustment sexual aggression sexual and gender identity disorders sexual anesthesia sexual anomaly sexual apathy sexual arousal sexual arousal disorder sexual assault sexual attitude reassessment workshop (SAR workshop) sexual attitudes sexual attraction sexual aversion disorder sexual behavior sexual burnout sexual characteristic sexual conditioning sexual contact sexual curiosity sexual desire disorder sexual development sexual deviance sexual differentiation sexual dimorphism sexual discrimination sexual disorder sexual drive sexual dysfunction sexual erethism sexual fantasy sexual feeling sexual functioning sexual harassment sexual hygiene sexual identification sexual identity sexual imprinting sexual inhibition sexual instinct sexual intercourse sexual interest sexual inversion sexual liberation sexual lifestyle sexual masochism sexual maturation sexual metamorphosis sexual object sexual offense sexual orientation sexual orientation change efforts (SOCE) sexual orientation grid sexual pain disorder sexual perversion sexual preference sexual reassignment sexual receptivity sexual reflex sexual response sexual revolution sexual sadism sexual selection sexual sensation sexual socialization sexual stimulation sexual tension sexual trauma sexual value system sexual-response cycle sexuality Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States (SIECUS) sexualization sexually dimorphic nucleus sexually transmitted disease (STD) SGA shade shading shadow shadow jury shadowing shaken baby syndrome (SBS) shallow affect shallow processing sham disorder sham feeding sham rage sham surgery shaman shamanic trance shame shame culture shamelessness shape shape coding shape constancy shaping Shapiro–Wilk test shared attention shared environment shared medical appointment model shared mental model shared psychotic disorder sharpening Sheehan’s syndrome sheep–goat effect Sheldon’s constitutional theory of personality shell shock shelter care sheltered workshop shen-k’uei (shenkui) shenjing shuairuo sherm shift work shin-byung shinkeishitsu Shipley Institute of Living Scale (SILS) shock shock phase shock probation shock therapy shock–shock interval (SS interval) shoe anesthesia shoe fetishism shook yong Short Grit Scale (Grit–S) Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ) short-term memory (STM) short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy short-term psychotherapy short-wavelength pigment shortcut key showup shrink shrinkage SHRM shrunken R2 shuk yang shunning shunt shuttle box shy bladder syndrome shy–bold continuum shyness sialorrhea Siamese twins sib sib-pair method sibilant siblicide sibling sibling rivalry sibutramine sick headache sick role Šidák test side effect Sidman avoidance schedule SIDS SIECUS Siegel–Tukey test sight method sight words sighting line sigma sigma receptor sigmatism sigmoid curve sign sign effect sign language sign stimulus sign test sign tracking signal signal amplification bias signal anxiety signal detection task signal detection theory (SDT) signal word signal word panel signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) signaled avoidance signature signed-ranks test significance significance level significance testing significant difference significant other signifier SII Silenor silok SILS Silver–Russell syndrome Simenon’s syndrome similarities test similarity similarity classification similarity coefficient simile Simmonds’ disease Simon effect simple causation simple cell simple comparison simple correlation simple effect simple emotion simple eye simple factorial design simple hypothesis simple ideas simple partial seizure simple phobia simple random sampling simple reaction time (SRT) simple regression simple schizophrenia simple sentence simple stepfamily simple structure simple tone simple universal simple-effects analysis simplicity principle Simpson’s paradox simulated family simulation simulation training simulator simulator sickness simultanagnosia simultanapraxia simultaneous conditioning simultaneous contrast simultaneous discrimination simultaneous lightness contrast simultaneous masking simultaneous processing simultaneous regression sine qua non sine wave Sinemet Sinequan single alternation single blind single mothers by choice single parent single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) single-capacity model single-case design single-case method and evaluation single-cell recording single-channel model single-episode depression single-event learning single-factor design single-gene disorder single-group validity single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) single-participant design single-sample t test single-sample test single-session therapy (SST) single-subject case design single-subject design singles test singleton sinistral sinistrality sinistro- (sinistr-) sinusoid SIP SIPPA SIQ SIS sissy behavior SIT situated cognition situated identity theory situated intelligence situated knowledge situated learning situation situation awareness situation ethics situation sampling situation test situational approach situational attribution situational conditions situational determinant situational differences situational homosexuality situational interview situational judgment test (SJT) situational leadership theory situational psychosis situational restraint situational semantics situational test situationalism situationally bound panic attack situationally predisposed panic attack situationism SITUTs Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) sixth cranial nerve sixth sense size constancy size cue size discrimination size principle size-invariant neuron size–distance paradox size–weight illusion Sjögren–Larsson syndrome Sjögren’s syndrome SJT skeletal age skeletal muscle skelic index skeptical postmodernism skepticism skewness skill skill learning skill theory skilled nursing facility (SNF) skimming skin skin conductance skin graft skin popping skin receptor skin resistance skin sense skin stimulation skin-picking disorder Skinner box sl SLD SLE sleep sleep apnea sleep attack sleep center sleep cycle sleep deprivation sleep disorder sleep disorientation sleep drive sleep drunkenness sleep efficiency sleep enuresis sleep epilepsy sleep hygiene sleep inversion sleep laboratory sleep latency sleep learning sleep paralysis sleep pattern sleep psychology Sleep Questionnaire and Assessment of Wakefulness (SQAW) sleep recovery sleep rhythm sleep spindles sleep stages sleep talking sleep terror disorder sleep-onset insomnia sleep-related hypoventilation sleep–wake cycle sleep–wake disorder sleep–wake schedule disorder sleeper effect sleepiness sleeping sickness sleeplessness sleepwalking disorder SLI slice-of-life commercial slip slip of the pen slip of the tongue slippage slipped disk slit viewing slope Slosson Intelligence Test (SIT) slow euthanasia slow learner slow muscle fiber slow wave slow-release preparation slow-wave sleep slowdown Sly syndrome SM SMA small for gestational age (SGA) smallest space analysis Smalltalk SMART smart house smell smell brain smell compensation Smell Identification Test (SIT) smell prism Smith–Lemli–Opitz syndrome smoking smoking cessation treatment smooth movement smooth muscle smooth-pursuit eye movement smoothed curve smoothing SMR snake phobia sneak mating Snellen chart SNF snow snow blindness snowball sampling SNP SNRI SOA SOAP test Soar sobriety SOCE sociability sociability rating social social (pragmatic) communication disorder social acceptance social action social action program social adaptation social adjustment social affective neuroscience social age (SA) social agency social anchoring social anxiety social anxiety disorder social approval social ascendancy social assimilation social atom social attachment social attitude social behavior social bond social breakdown syndrome social casework social category social change social class social climate social climbing social clock social code social cognition social cohesion social communication disorder social comparison theory social competence social competence program social conflict social constructionism social constructivism social contagion social context social contract social contract orientation social control social convention social coping social creativity social Darwinism social death social decision scheme social deficit social degeneracy social density social deprivation social desirability social determinism social development social differentiation social dilemma social disability syndrome social disapproval social discrimination social distance social distance scale social dominance orientation (SDO) social dominance theory (SDT) social drinker social dynamics social ecology social emotion social engineer social entrepreneurship social equality social evolution social exchange theory social facilitation social factors social feedback social fission social force social gerontology social group social growth social habit social heritage social identity social identity theory social image social immobility social impact assessment social impact theory social imperception disorder social incentive social indicator social influence social information processing social inhibition social insects social instinct social integration social intelligence social intelligence quotient social interaction social interest social interference social intervention social introversion social isolation social isolation syndrome social judgment theory social justice norm social learning social learning theory social limitation social loafing social maladjustment social marketing social matching effect social maturity social maturity scale social meaning model social memory social mobility social monogamy social mores social motive social movement social need social network social network analysis social neuroscience social norm social order social organism social organization social ossification social penetration theory social perception social phobia social physique anxiety social planning social play social power social presence social pressure social promotion social psychology social psychology of the experiment social punishment social quotient Social Readjustment Rating Scale social reality social recovery social referencing social reform program social rehabilitation social reinforcement social relations model social relationship social representation social repression social resistance social responsibility norm social reward social role social role theory social role valorization social sanction social schema social science Social Security social self social services social setting detoxification social skills social skills training (SST) social smile social smoker social speech social statics social statistics social status social stimulus social stratification social structure social studies social subordination social support social technology social therapy social transmission social trap social tunneling social withdrawal social work social zone social-adjustive function of an attitude social-cognitive theory social-emotional leader social-inquiry model social-network therapy Social–Emotional scale sociality sociality corollary socialization socialized delinquency socialized drive socially sensitive research Sociedad Interamericana de Psicologia (SIP) societal-reaction theory society Society for Neuroscience Society for Psychical Research Society for Psychotherapy Research Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD) Society of Experimental Psychologists Society of Experimental Social Psychology Society of Indian Psychologists (SIP) sociobiology sociocentric bias sociocentric network sociocentrism sociocognitive bias sociocultural anthropology sociocultural deprivation sociocultural factors sociocultural perspective sociodrama sociodramatic play socioeconomic status (SES) socioemotional role socioemotional selectivity theory sociofugal sociogenetics sociogenic sociogram sociolect sociolinguistics sociological factors sociological measure sociological social psychology sociology sociometer theory sociometric analysis sociometric differentiation sociometric distance sociometric status sociometric structure sociometric test sociometry socionomics sociopath sociopathic behavior sociopathic personality sociopathy sociopetal sociosexual assessment sociosexual orientation sociotechnical systems approach sociotherapy sociotropy socius Socratic dialogue Socratic effect sodium channel sodium oxybate sodium pump sodium regulation sodomy soft data soft determinism soft drug soft key soft neurological sign soft palate soft psychology soft sell soft sign soft spot software Sohval–Soffer syndrome SOI solicitation behavior solipsism solitary nucleus solitary play Solomon four-group design solute solution-focused brief therapy solvent soma Soma somaesthesia somat- somatic somatic anxiety somatic area somatic cell somatic concern somatic delusion somatic depression somatic disorder somatic function somatic hallucination somatic nervous system somatic obsession somatic receptor somatic sense somatic sensory area somatic sensory system somatic symptom and related disorders somatic symptom disorder somatic therapy somatic weakness somatist somatization somatization disorder somato- (somat-) somatoform disorder somatoform pain disorder somatogenesis somatognosia somatography somatomedin somatometry somatophrenia somatoplasm somatopsychic delusion somatopsychology somatopsychosis somatosense somatosensory area somatosensory disorder somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) somatosensory system somatostatin somatotherapy somatotonia somatotopagnosia somatotopic organization somatotropin somatotropin-release inhibiting factor (SRIF) somatotype somber–bright dimension somesthesia (somaesthesia) somesthetic disorder somesthetic sense somesthetic stimulation somnambulism somniloquy somnolence somnolentia somnology somnophilia sonant Sonata sone song sonic boom Sonic Pathfinder sonography sonorant soothability sophistry sophrosyne sopite syndrome soporific SOPS SORC sorcery drug Sorge sort-recall task sorting test Sotos syndrome soul soul image soul kiss sound sound cage sound change sound intensity sound localization sound pressure sound shadow sound spectrography sound spectrum sound symbolism sound-attenuating chamber sound-level meter sound-pressure level (SPL) sounding out sour source amnesia source attractiveness source confusion source credibility source expertise source factors source language source majority or minority status source memory source monitoring source trait source trustworthiness Southern blot SOV space adaptation syndrome space factor space motion sickness space orientation space perception space psychology space-based attention spaced practice spaced repetition spacing effect span of apprehension spandrel spasm spasmodic dysphonia spasmodic fixation spastic spastic colitis spastic dysarthria spastic dysphonia spastic hemiparesis spastic paralysis spastic paraplegia spasticity spatial ability spatial attention spatial autocorrelation spatial cognition spatial coherence spatial contrast sensitivity spatial data spatial density spatial discrimination spatial disorder spatial frequency spatial intelligence spatial learning spatial memory spatial neglect spatial orientation spatial relationships spatial summation spatial threshold spatial updating spatial vision spatial-temporal reasoning spaying SPC speaking in tongues Spearman correlation coefficient Spearman–Brown prophecy formula Spearman’s G Spearman’s S special aptitude special care unit (SCU) special child special education special factor special needs special needs child special psychiatric rapid intervention team (SPRINT) special school special-ability test speciation species species recognition species specificity of language species-specific behavior species-specific defense reaction (SSDR) speciesism specific ability specific aptitude specific developmental disorders specific exploration specific factor (s factor) specific hunger specific language disability specific language impairment (SLI) specific learning disability (SLD) specific learning disorder specific nerve energies specific phobia specific thalamic projection system specific transfer specific variance specific-attitudes theory specific-energy doctrine specific-reaction theory specific-status characteristic specificity specificity of behavior specificity theory specious present SPECT spectator effect spectator role spectator therapy spectral absorption spectral color spectral density spectral envelope spectral scale spectral sensitivity spectrally opponent cell spectrogram spectroscopy spectrum spectrum level spectrum of consciousness speculation speculative psychology speech speech act speech amplification system speech and language disorder speech and language pathology speech and language therapy speech anxiety speech aphasia speech apraxia speech area speech audiometry speech community speech derailment speech development speech discrimination test speech error speech functions speech impairment speech impediment speech intelligibility speech lateralization speech origin speech perception speech processor speech production speech recognition system speech rehabilitation speech sound disorder Speech Sounds Perception Test speech synthesizer speech therapy speech-activated control speech-reception threshold (SRT) speech-to-noise ratio speech-tolerance level speech, language, and hearing center speechreading speed speed dating speed test speed–accuracy tradeoff speedball spell spelling dyslexia sperm sperm analysis sperm competition spermarche spermatic duct spermatocyte spermatogenesis spermatorrhea spermatozoon spherical aberration spherical lens sphericity sphincter sphincter control sphincter morality sphingomyelin sphingomyelin lipidosis sphygmograph sphygmomanometer spice spicy spider phobia spike spike potential spike-and-wave discharges spike-wave activity spina bifida spinal animal spinal canal spinal column spinal cord spinal cord disease spinal cord injury spinal ganglion spinal gate spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) spinal nerve spinal reflex spinal root spinal shock spinal stenosis spinal tap spindle cell spindle waves spine spinocerebellar tract spinocerebellum spinomesencephalic tract spinoreticular tract spinothalamic tract spiral ganglion spiral test spirit spirit photography spiritism spiritual factor spiritual healing spiritual self spiritualism spirituality spirograph spirometer SPL splanchnic splanchnic nerve spleen splenium spline function split brain split personality split recovery split run split treatment split-ballot technique split-brain technique split-half reliability split-litter design split-plot design split-span test splitting SPMSQ spongiform encephalopathy spongioblast spontaneity test spontaneity training spontaneous abortion spontaneous alternation spontaneous discharge spontaneous imagery spontaneous memorialization spontaneous movement spontaneous neural activity spontaneous recovery spontaneous regression spontaneous remission spontaneous speech spontaneous trait inference spoonerism sport sport and exercise psychology Sport Imagery Questionnaire (SIQ) sport psychology sport science sport self-talk log sport socialization sport sociology sport-related life skills sports hypnosis sports imagery sportsmanship spotlight model of attention Spranger’s typology spread spread of effect spreading activation spreading depression spree murder SPRINT spurious correlation SQ3R SQAW square matrix square-root transformation squared correlation coefficient squared multiple correlation coefficient squeeze technique SQUID squint SRA SRCD SRI SRIF SRT SRY SS SS interval SS regression SSA SSDR SSE SSRI SSS SST SSW St. John’s wort stability stability coefficient stabilized image stabilizing selection Stablon Stadol staff turnover staffing theory stage Stage 1 sleep Stage 2 sleep Stage 3 sleep Stage 4 sleep stage fright stage sampling stage theory stage theory of strategy development stages of change stages of grief staggered entry design Staggered Spondaic Word Test (SSW) stagnation STAI stain staircase illusion staircase method staircase phenomenon stakeholder Stalevo stalking stammering stance reflex standard application blank (SAB) standard Cox regression model standard deviation standard error standard error of estimate standard error of measurement standard error of the mean standard gamma distribution standard language standard normal distribution standard normal variable standard observer standard stimulus standard treatment control standardization standardization group standardized coefficient standardized distribution standardized interview standardized score standardized test standards of practice standpoint theory Stanford Achievement Test Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale Stanford prison study Stanford v. Kentucky Stanford–Binet Intelligence Scale (SB) stanine stanolone stapedius muscle stapes star star compass startle response starvation stasis STAT state state anxiety state orientation state self-focus state space state theories of hypnosis State v. Mack state-dependent behavior state-dependent learning state-dependent memory state-specific science State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) statement validity analysis states versus transformations static ataxia static marriage static response static sense stationarity statistic statistical analysis statistical conclusion validity statistical control statistical decision theory statistical dependence statistical determinism statistical error statistical hypothesis statistical independence statistical learning theory statistical model statistical prediction statistical process control (SPC) statistical psychology statistical significance statistical stability statistical test statistics statoconium statokinetic dissociation status status differentiation status epilepticus status generalization status incongruence status offense status planning status relations status symbol status-quo bias statutory rape STD steady state stealing thunder stealth juror steatopygia Steele–Richardson–Olszewski syndrome Steinert’s disease Steinzor effect Stelazine stellate cell stem cell stem-and-leaf plot stem-completion task steno- stenosis stenosis of aqueduct of Sylvius stepdown selection stepdown test stepfamily stepping reflex stepup selection stepwise regression stereoacuity stereoblindness stereochemical smell theory stereocilia stereognosis stereogram stereoisomers stereopsis stereoscope stereoscopic acuity stereoscopic depth perception stereoscopic motion picture stereoscopic vision stereotaxis stereotaxy stereotropism stereotype stereotype accuracy stereotype threat stereotyped behavior stereotyped movement stereotypic movement disorder stereotypy steric theory of odor sterility sterilization Sternberg Triarchic Abilities Test (STAT) steroid steroid hormone steroid use stethograph Stevens law Stevens–Johnson syndrome Stewart–Morel syndrome sthenic type sthenometer STI stick shaker stiffness stigma Stigma Impact Scale (SIS) stigmatophilia Stiles–Crawford effect Stilling Color Vision Test stim test stimulant stimulant intoxication stimulant use disorder stimulant withdrawal stimulate stimulating occupation stimulation stimulation effects stimulator stimulus stimulus coding stimulus continuum stimulus control stimulus differentiation stimulus discrimination stimulus element stimulus equivalence stimulus evaluation checks (SECs) stimulus filtering stimulus function stimulus generalization stimulus gradient stimulus object stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) stimulus overload stimulus proposition stimulus salience stimulus sampling stimulus sampling theory (SST) stimulus set stimulus situation stimulus strength stimulus substitution stimulus value stimulus-bound stimulus-element approach stimulus-independent and task-unrelated thoughts (SITUTs) stimulus-intensity dynamism stimulus–response (S–R) stimulus–response chain stimulus–response compatibility stimulus–response theory stimulus–stimulus learning model stirrup STM stochastic stochastic independence stochastic model stochastic process stochastic variable Stockholm syndrome stocking anesthesia stomach loading stop stop-signal task storage storage capacity storage-and-transfer model of memory storm-and-stress period story model story-recall test storytelling stotting STP strabismic amblyopia strabismometer strabismus straight strain straitjacket Strange Situation strange-hand sign stranger anxiety stranger distress strangulated affect strata strategic family therapy strategic human resource management (SHRM) strategic intervention therapy strategic therapy strategy strategy choice model stratification stratified sampling stratum stream of consciousness stream olfactometer streaming streaming media street hustler street intelligence strength of association strephosymbolia stress stress casualty stress hormone stress immunity stress immunization stress incontinence stress interview stress management stress reaction stress test stress tolerance stress training stress-decompensation model stress-induced analgesia stress-inoculation training (SIT) stress–vulnerability model stressor stressor aftereffects stretch marks stretch receptor stretch reflex stria atrophica stria terminalis stria vascularis striate cortex striated muscle striatum strict scrutiny stridor dentium stridulation string striving for superiority stroboscope stroboscopic illusion stroke strong ego Strong Interest Inventory (SII) strong law of effect strong law of large numbers strong methods Stroop Color–Word Interference Test Stroop effect structural analysis structural approach structural coefficient structural commitment structural constraint theory structural disorder structural equation modeling structural family therapy structural group structural hypothesis structural integration structural matrix structural model structural psychology structural therapy structural zero structuralism structuralist structure structure coefficient structure of an attitude structure of intellect model (SOI) structure word structured autobiography structured group structured interactional group psychotherapy structured interview structured learning structured learning group structured observation structured play structured Q sort structured stimulus structures of the whole structuring struggle for existence strychnine student counseling student–teacher evaluation student’s disease Student’s t distribution Student’s t test Studentization Studentized range statistic Studentized residual Students of the International Positive Psychology Association (SIPPA) students’ evaluation of teaching (SET) study Study of Values study skill study-phase retrieval theory stupor Sturge–Weber syndrome Sturm und Drang period stuttering stuttering gait STX stylistic ratings stylus maze subacute spongiform encephalopathy (SSE) subarachnoid hemorrhage subarachnoid space subcallosal gyrus subception subcommissural organ subconscious subcortical subcortical aphasia subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy subcortical center subcortical dementia subcortical learning subcultural delinquency subculture subculture of violence subcutaneous injection subcutaneous sensibility subdelirious state subdural subdural hematoma subdural hemorrhage subfecundity subfornical organ subgoal subgranular zone subiculum subitize subject subject bias subject history subject matching subject maturation subject of consciousness subject role subject sophistication subject variable subject-matter expert subjection subjective subjective attribute subjective colors subjective competitive situation subjective contour subjective expected utility (SEU) subjective expected value subjective idealism subjective norm subjective organization subjective prior subjective probability subjective psychology subjective responsibility subjective scoring subjective test subjective tone subjective visual field subjective well-being (SWB) subjective-equality point subjectivism subjectivity subjects-to-variables ratio subjects’ rights subjunctive sublimation Sublimaze subliminal subliminal consciousness subliminal learning subliminal perception subliminal persuasion subliminal priming subliminal process subliminal propaganda subliminal stimulation submission submissive signal submissiveness subnormal subnormal period of neuron suboccipital puncture subordinate subordinate category subordinate clause subordination Suboxone subpopulation subsample subscale subspecies substance substance abuse Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) substance abuse treatment substance dependence substance intoxication substance intoxication delirium substance P substance use disorder substance withdrawal substance-induced anxiety disorder substance-induced mood disorder substance-induced persisting amnestic disorder substance-induced persisting dementia substance-induced psychotic disorder substance-related disorder substantia gelatinosa substantia nigra substantive rationality substantive significance substantive universal substitute formation substitutes for leadership theory substitution substitution hypothesis substitution pharmacotherapy substitution test substrate subtest subthalamic nucleus subthalamus subtherapeutic dose subthreshold potential subtotal hysterectomy subtraction method subtractive bilingualism subtractive mixture subtractive principle subtype Subutex subventricular zone subvocal speech successful aging successful intelligence successive contrast successive discrimination successive induction successive reproduction successive-approximations method successive-intervals method succinimide succinylcholine succorance need succubus sucker effect sucking reflex sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) sudden insight sudden unexpected nocturnal-death syndrome sufentanil suffering sufficient condition sufficient estimator suffix suffix effect suggestibility suggestion suggestion therapy sui juris suicidal crisis suicidal gesture suicidal ideation suicidality suicide suicide attempt suicide by cop suicide-prevention center suicidology suk-yeong sukra prameha sulcus sulcus centralis sulcus principalis Sullivan’s interpersonal theory sum of cross-products sum of products sum of squared errors sum of squares sum strategy sumatriptan summary statistics summated rating scale summating potential summation summation effect summation time summative evaluation summer depression sun compass sunburst maze sundown syndrome sunk-costs effect suo yang superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) superconscious superego superego anxiety superego resistance superego sadism superficial superior superior canal dehiscence superior colliculus superior function superior intelligence superior longitudinal fasciculus superior oblique superior olivary complex (superior olivary nucleus; superior olive) superior rectus superior sagittal sinus superior temporal gyrus superiority complex superman supernatural supernormal supernormal stimulus superordinate category superordinate goal superposition supersaturated design supersensitivity superstition superstitious behavior superstitious control superstitious ritual supertaster supervalent thought supervenience supervised analysis supervision supervisory analysis Supervisory Attentional System (SAS) supervisory control superwoman syndrome supination supine supplementary motor area (SMA) supplication supply reduction support group supported employment supported housing supported living supported retirement supportive psychotherapy supportive services supportive-expressive psychotherapy supportiveness suppository suppressed anger syndrome suppression suppressive therapy suppressor effect suppressor variable suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) supraliminal supraliminal perception supramarginal gyrus supranuclear palsy supraoptic nucleus suprarenal gland suprasegmental suprasegmental reflex surd surface agraphia surface color surface dyslexia surface structure (s-structure) surface therapy surface trait surgency surplus energy theory surprise surprisingness surrogate surrogate decision making surrogate father surrogate mother surrogate variable sursumvergence survey survey error survey knowledge survival analysis survival instinct survival of the fittest survival rate survival ratio survival value survivor guilt survivorship susceptibility susceptibility rhythms SUSOPS suspended rootogram suspensory ligament suspicious jealousy suspiciousness sustained attention sustained operations (SUSOPS) sustained-release preparation susto swallowing swarm intelligence SWB sweating sweet swinging switch cost switch device switch process switchback design switching SWLS Sydenham’s chorea syllabary syllable syllogism Sylvian aqueduct Sylvian fissure sym- symbiosis symbiotic infantile psychosis symbiotic marriage symbiotic psychosis symbiotic relationship symbol symbol grounding symbol-substitution test symbol–digit test Symbolic symbolic action symbolic attitude symbolic displacement symbolic function symbolic interactionism symbolic learning theory symbolic logic symbolic matching to sample symbolic mode symbolic modeling symbolic play symbolic process symbolic representation symbolic reward symbolic stage symbolic thinking symbolism symbolization SYMLOG Symmetrel symmetrical distribution symmetry symmetry compulsion symmetry test sympathectomy sympathetic chain sympathetic division sympathetic ganglion sympathetic induction sympathetic nervous system sympathetic–adrenal–medullary axis (SAM) sympathomimetic drug sympathy sympatric symphorophilia symptom symptom bearer symptom checklist Symptom Checklist-90–Revised (SCL-90–R) symptom cluster symptom complex symptom formation symptom removal symptom specificity symptom substitution symptom-context method symptomatic act symptomatic epilepsy symptomatic treatment symptomatology Symptoms of Dementia Screener (SDS) syn- (sym-) Synanon synapse synapse rearrangement synaptic bouton synaptic cleft synaptic depression synaptic junction synaptic knob synaptic pruning synaptic transmission synaptic transmitter synaptic vesicle synaptogenesis syncheiria (synchiria) synchronic linguistics synchronicity synchronism synchronization synchronized sleep synchronous brood synchronous correlation synchrony syncope syncretic thought syncretism syndrome synecdoche synectics model synergic marriage synergism synergistic muscles synergy synesthesia (synaesthesia) synkinesis (synkinesia) synonym synopsia syntactics syntax syntaxic mode synthesis synthetic approach synthetic cannabinoid synthetic language synthetic opioid synthetic speech synthetic validity syntonia syphilis syringe exchange program syringomyelia syrinx system System 1 system flow diagram system model of evaluation systematic approach systematic behavioral universal systematic desensitization systematic error systematic multiple level observation of groups systematic observation systematic processing systematic random sampling systematic rational restructuring systematic replication systematic sampling systematic variance systematics systematized delusion systemic systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) systemic mucopolysaccharidosis systemic thinking systems analysis systems engineering systems of support systems theory systolic blood pressure

Psychology term of the day

December 3rd 2023

consulting psychology

consulting psychology

the branch of psychology that provides expert psychological guidance to business and industry, federal and state agencies, the armed forces, educational and scientific groups, religious groups, and volunteer and public service organizations. Consulting psychologists specialize in a variety of approaches—clinical, community, school, education, and industrial and organizational—and offer a wide variety of services, the most common of which are individual assessment, individual and group-process consultation, organizational development, education and training, employee selection and appraisal, research and evaluation test construction, management coaching, and change management.