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Psychology terms starting with R

Here you will find all the terms used in psychology starting with the letter R. Our site provides information on over 25,000 psychology terms and hundreds of articles.

r R R & T play r 2 R 2 R 2 adj r b r bis R c r effect size R factor analysis R methodology r pb r pbis r s r tet r to z transformation r-RST r-strategy R-technique factor analysis R–S interval R→O relationship R→S relationship rabbit–duck figure rabies race race norming rachischisis racial and ethnic minority psychology racial discrimination racial identity racial memory racial prejudice racial socialization racial unconscious racism radex theory of intelligence radial glia radial maze radial nerve radiation radiation necrosis radiation therapy radical behaviorism radical empiricism radical feminism radical hysterectomy radical therapy radicalism radiculitis radiculopathy radioactive isotope radioactive tracer radiography radioimmunoassay (RIA) radioisotope radiology radiotherapy RAE rage rage disorder railway lines illusion railway spine raloxifene rami communicantes ramp movement ramus Rana pipiens random random activity random assignment random classification random control random effect random error random event generator (REG) random factor random mating random model random noise random number generator (RNG) random observation random process random sampling random selection random variable random variation random walk random walk model random-digit dialing (RDD) random-dot stereogram random-effects analysis of variance random-effects model random-interval schedule (RI schedule) random-ratio schedule (RR schedule) randomization randomization test randomized block design (RBD) randomized clinical trial (RCT) randomized design randomized-response technique (RRT) range range effect range fractionation range of attention range of audibility range of motion (ROM) range restriction rank rank biserial correlation coefficient rank correlation coefficient rank order rank regression rank transformation rank-order data rank-order method rank-order scale rank-order statistic test rank-sum test ranked data ranked distribution Rankian therapy ranking experiment ranking method rape rape counseling rape-trauma syndrome raphe nucleus rapid alternating movements rapid cycling rapid eye movement (REM) rapid neuroleptization rapid sequential visual presentation (RSVP) rapport rapprochement Rapunzel syndrome RAS Rasch model Rat Man rate coding rate dependence effect rate dependency rate law rate of change rater reliability rating rating error rating scale rating scale judgment task ratio data ratio IQ ratio reinforcement ratio scale ratio strain ratio variable rational rational addiction rational authority rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) rational knowledge rational learning rational problem solving rational psychology rational soul rational suicide rational thinking rational type rational-economic man rationalism rationality rationality of emotions rationalization rationally based persuasion rauwolfia derivative Raven’s Progressive Matrices RAVLT raw data raw score Rayleigh equation Rayleigh scattering Raynaud’s disease Razadyne RBC theory RBD rCBF (RCBF) RCFT RCMAS RCT RdA RDC RDD reach envelope reactance theory reaction reaction formation reaction potential reaction time (RT) reaction type reactional biography reactivation of memory reactive reactive aggression reactive attachment disorder reactive coping reactive depression reactive disorder reactive inhibition reactive jealousy reactive mania reactive measure reactive psychosis reactive schizophrenia reactivity readability level readership-survey technique readiness readiness potential (RP) readiness test reading age (RdA) reading delay reading disability reading disorder reading epilepsy reading ladder reading level reading machine reading quotient reading readiness reading retardation reading span readmission reafference reafference principle Real real limit real self real-life test real-time amplification real–ideal self congruence real–simulator model realism realism factor realistic anxiety realistic group conflict theory realistic job preview (RJP) realistic thinking reality reality awareness reality confrontation reality monitoring reality orientation reality principle reality testing reality therapy reason reasonable accommodations reasonable doubt reasonable person standard reasoned action model reasoning reasoning test reassociation reassurance rebelliousness rebirthing rebound phenomenon reboxetine REBT rebus writing recall recall bias recall method recall score method recall test recapitulation theory receiver receiver-operating characteristic curve (ROC curve) receiving hospital recency effect receptive amimia receptive amusia receptive aphasia receptive character receptive field receptive language receptive vocabulary receptivity receptor receptor adaptation receptor cell receptor field receptor molecule receptor potential receptor site recessive allele recidivism recidivism rate recipient factors reciprocal reciprocal altruism reciprocal determinism reciprocal inhibition reciprocal innervation reciprocal liking reciprocal punishment reciprocal relationship reciprocal roles reciprocal transformation reciprocal-teaching procedure reciprocity reciprocity law reciprocity norm recoding recognition recognition by components theory (RBC theory) recognition memory Recognition Memory Test (RMT) recognition method recognition span recognition technique recognition test recognition threshold recognition vocabulary recognitory assimilation recollection recombinant DNA recombination recompensation reconditioning therapy reconsolidation reconstituted family reconstruction reconstructive memory reconstructive psychological evaluation reconstructive psychotherapy reconstructive surgery record keeping recovered memory recovered memory therapy recovery recovery of function recovery ratio recovery time Recovery, Inc. recreation recreational drug recreational therapy recruitment recruitment bias rectal administration rectal reflex rectangular distribution recumbent recuperative theory recurrent recurrent circuit recurrent collateral inhibition recurrent dream recurring-figures test recursion recursive recursive model red nucleus red reflex red sage red–green blindness red–green responses redintegration redirected behavior redout reduced model reductio ad absurdum reduction to essence rule reductionism redundancy redundancy analysis redundant coding redundant prepuce reduplicated babbling reduplicative paramnesia reeducation reenactment reentrant reentry reevaluation counseling reference distribution reference group reference group theory reference memory reference population referent referent power referential attitude referential signal referral referred sensation reflectance reflected appraisals reflected glare reflection of feeling reflection response reflection–impulsivity reflective reflective abstraction reflective consciousness reflective functioning reflectivity–impulsivity reflex reflex arc reflex attention reflex epilepsy reflex inhibition reflex integration reflex latency reflex reserve reflex strength reflex sympathetic dystrophy reflexive behavior reflexivity reflexogenous zone reflexology reformatory paranoia reformism refraction refractive error (refractive disorder) refractive index refractory refractory period refractory phase reframing refusal rate refutability refutation REG regeneration of nerves regenerative medicine regimen regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF; RCBF) regional localization theory register registered nurse (RN) Regitine regress on regression regression analysis regression artifact regression coefficient regression constant regression diagnostics regression effect regression equation regression in the service of the ego regression line regression model regression sum of squares regression toward the mean regression tree regression weight regression-discontinuity design (RDD) regressive reconstructive approach regret regret theory regular regulation of consciousness regulatory behavior regulatory drive regulatory focus theory regulatory system REGWQ test rehabilitation rehabilitation center rehabilitation counseling rehabilitation engineering rehabilitation medicine rehabilitation neuropsychology rehabilitation program rehabilitation psychology rehabilitation team rehearsal rehospitalization Reichenbach phenomenon Reicher–Wheeler effect Reichian analysis reification reiki reincarnation reinforce reinforced practice reinforcement reinforcement contingency reinforcement counseling reinforcement delay reinforcement of alternative behavior reinforcement schedule reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST) Reinforcement Survey Schedule (RSS) reinforcement therapy reinforcer reinforcer effect reinforcing cause reinforcing stimulus reinstatement following extinction reintegration reintegrative stage Reissner’s membrane Reitan Indiana Aphasia Screening Test Reitan–Klove Sensory Perceptual Examination Reiz limen (RL) rejected child rejecting–neglecting parenting rejection rejection error rejection method rejection region rejection value relapse relapse prevention relapse rate related samples related-measures design related-samples t test relatedness relatedness needs relation relational aggression relational discrimination relational frame relational frame theory (RFT) relational learning relational mapping relational primacy hypothesis relational psychoanalysis relational research relational self relational shift relational turbulence relational word relational world relationship relationship conflict relationship leader relationship role relationship system relationship therapy relationship training relationship-motivated relative accommodation relative deprivation relative efficiency relative frequency relative frequency distribution relative judgment relative measurement relative pitch relative position relative refractory period relative risk relative scotoma relative sensitivity relativism relaxation relaxation technique relaxation therapy relay nucleus relearning method release release from proactive interference release inhibitor release phenomenon release theory of humor release therapy release zone releaser releasing hormone relevance–sensitivity tradeoff relevant–irrelevant test reliability reliability coefficient reliability diagonal reliability index reliability of components reliability of composites reliability sampling reliability theory relief religion religiosity religious delusion religious faith religious healing religious instinct hypothesis religious mania religious obsessive-compulsive disorder religious therapy religiousness REM REM behavior disorder (RBD) REM latency REM rebound REM sleep REM storm REM-sleep deprivation remand remedial education remedial therapy remember cue remember–know procedure remembering remembrance Remeron remifentanil reminder reminiscence reminiscence theory of knowledge reminiscence therapy remission remitted-disorder study remorse remote association remote cause remote grandparent remote masking remote memory remote perception remote viewing remote-association test remotivation removing harmful consequences renal renal system Renard Diagnostic Interview renewal following extinction Renfield’s syndrome renifleur renin renin–angiotensin system Renpenning syndrome Renshaw cell renunciation reorganization principle reorientation therapy repair reparameterization reparation reparative therapy reparenting repeat offender repeatability repeated acquisition repeated contrast repeated factor repeated measures analysis of variance repeated measures design repeated measures t test repeated reproduction repertoire repertory grid repetition repetition blindness repetition compulsion repetition effect repetition priming repetitive strain injury (RSI) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) replacement memory replacement sampling replacement therapy replication reportability representation representational change representational constraints representational insight representational redescription representational skills representational stage representational thought representational validity representationalism representative democracy representative design representative factors representative sampling representativeness representativeness heuristic repressed memory repression repression proper repression resistance repression–sensitization repressive coping style reproducibility reproduction reproduction theory reproductive behavior reproductive failure reproductive function reproductive image reproductive imagination reproductive memory reproductive success reproductive suppression reproductive type res cogitans res extensa resampling Rescorla–Wagner theory research research design Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) research diary research ethics research hypothesis research method research protocol research register research risk research sport psychology research synthesis researcher bias resentment reserpine reserve capacity reserved residence rate residential care residential habilitation residential maze residential school residential treatment residual residual analysis residual error residual mean square residual schizophrenia residual score residual sum of squares residual term residual variance residual vision residue method residue pitch resignation resilience resinous resistance resistance of an attitude resistance stage resistance to change resistance to extinction resistance to interference resistant attachment resistant estimator resocialization resolution resolution phase resolving power resonance frequency resource allocation resource competition resource defense polygyny resource teacher resource theory respect respiration respiratory depression respiratory disorder respiratory distress syndrome respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) respiratory type respite care respondent respondent behavior respondent conditioning respondent validation response response acquiescence response bias response chain response circuit response class response conflict response cost response deprivation response differentiation response effect response frequency response generalization response hierarchy response integration response latency response learning response magnitude response prevention response probability response proposition response rate response scale response scenario response selection response set response strength response style response suppression response threshold response time response topography response variable response-by-analogy principle response-focused emotion regulation response-operating characteristic curve response–reinforcement contingency response–shock interval (R–S interval) responsible stage responsiveness REST rest cure rest home rest period restatement resting potential resting tremor restitution restitutionary damages restless-legs syndrome restlessness restoration effect restoration therapy restorative environment restorative justice Restorff phenomenon Restoril restraint restricted affect restricted code restricted environmental stimulation technique (REST) restricted recovery restriction of range results-only work environment (ROWE) resurgence RET retardation retarded depression retarded ejaculation rete mirabile retention retention curve retention interval retention measure retest reliability reticular activating system (RAS) reticular formation reticular membrane reticulospinal tract retifism retina retinal retinal bipolar cell retinal cone retinal densitometry retinal detachment retinal disparity retinal field retinal ganglion cell retinal horizontal cell retinal image retinal light retinal oscillations retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) retinal receptive field retinal rod retinal size retinene retinex theory retinitis retinitis pigmentosa retinol retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) retinoscope retinotopic map retinotopy retirement counseling retreat from reality retrieval retrieval block retrieval cue retrieving behavior retroactive interference retrobulbar retrochiasmatic visual deficit retrocochlear hearing loss retrocognition retrograde amnesia retrograde degeneration retrograde ejaculation retrograde memory retrograde transport retrogression retrogressive formation retrolental fibroplasia retronasal olfaction retropulsion retrospection retrospective audit retrospective cohort study retrospective confidence judgment retrospective falsification retrospective medical audit retrospective memory retrospective research retrospective sampling retrospective validity Rett syndrome reuptake reuptake inhibitor revealed-differences technique reverberating circuit reverie reversal design reversal error reversal learning reversal of affect reversal shift reversal theory reverse anorexia reverse causality reverse counterbalancing reverse discrimination reverse tolerance reversed dependency trap reversibility reversible dementia reversible figure reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase-A (RIMA) reversion Reversol ReVia Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS) revivification revolutionary coalition revolving-door phenomenon reward reward center reward dependence reward expectancy reward power reward responsiveness reward system reward theory rewarded alternative method rewrite rule Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT) Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCFT) RFT Rh blood-group incompatibility Rh factor (rhesus factor) Rh reaction rhabdomancy RHC rheoencephalography rhesus factor rhesus monkey rhetorical-question message rheumatoid arthritis rhinal fissure Rhine cards rhinencephalon rhino- (rhin-) rhinolalia rhizomelic rhizotomy rho correlation rhodopsin rhombencephalon rhyming delirium rhythm rhythm method rhythmic stereotypy rhythmic stimulation RI RIA ribonucleic acid ribosomal RNA ribosome Ribot’s law Ricco’s law rich interpretation rich medium rickets Riddoch’s phenomenon ridge regression right brain right censoring right hemisphere right to die right to refuse treatment right to treatment right-and-wrong test right-and-wrong-cases method right-handedness right-hemisphere consciousness right-or-wrong test right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) right–left disorientation right–left orientation test righting reflex rights of patients rights of people with mental disabilities rigid family rigid rotation rigidity Riley–Day syndrome RIMA ring chromosome 18 ring-finger dermatitis Ringelmann effect Rinne test riot rise risk risk assessment risk aversion risk factor risk level risk metrics risk perception risk proneness risk ratio risk sensitivity risk taking risk tolerance risk-as-feelings theory risk-assessment matrix risk-recreation model risk–rescue rating risky prediction risky shift risperidone Ritalin rite rite of passage ritual ritual abuse ritualization rivalry rivastigmine RJP RL RMD RMI RMS RMT RN RNA RNG road rage Robaxin Robbers Cave experiment Roberts syndrome Robitussin robot robotics robust estimator robustness ROC curve ROCFT Rock v. Arkansas rocking rod rod vision Rod-and-Frame Test (RFT) rod–cone break rods of Corti Roelofs effect roentgen ray roentgenogram Rogerian therapy Rohypnol rok-joo Rokeach Dogmatism Scale Rokeach Value Survey (RVS) Rolandic cortex Rolandic fissure role role ambiguity role conflict role confusion role deprivation role differentiation role diffusion role enactment role expectations role model role overload role play role reversal role set role shift role taking role theory role-enactment theory role-playing research rolfing ROM romance of leadership romantic love Romanticism romanticism factor Romazicon Romberg’s sign Romeo and Juliet effect roofie rooming-in root cause analysis root mean square (RMS) rooted graph rooted tree rootedness rooting reflex rootogram rootwork ROP Rorschach Inkblot Test Rosenthal effect Rostan types rostral rostrum rotarod rotary pursuit test rotation rotation sampling rotation system rotational aftereffect (RAE) rotational error rotational nystagmus rote learning rote recall rote rehearsal Rotter Internal–External Locus of Control Scale rough-and-tumble play (R & T play) roughness roughness discrimination test round dance round window route learning routes of administration routinized behavior routinized thoughts ROWE Royer’s syndrome RP RPE RPE scale RR RRT RSA RSH syndrome RSI RSS RST RSTS RSVP RT rTMS RTS rubber rubella Rubin’s causal model Rubin’s figure Rubinstein–Taybi syndrome (RSTS; RTS) rubrospinal tract Ruffini’s corpuscle rule rule learning rule of abstinence rule of double effect rule of thumb rule-based system rule-governed behavior rules of inference rumination rumor rumor intensity formula run run-in period runaway selection runner’s high running wheel runs test runway rural environment rural health clinic (RHC) rush RVS RWA RxP Ryan’s method

Psychology term of the day

December 3rd 2023

contingency theory of leadership

contingency theory of leadership

any of various models predicting that leadership performance depends on the interaction of the personal characteristics of the leader and the nature of the group situation. The prototypical contingency theory emerged from the conceptual analysis of leadership effectiveness developed by Fred Fiedler in the 1960s. Fiedler’s model differentiates between task-motivated and relationship-motivated leaders, as indicated by scores on the Least Preferred Coworker Scale, and predicts that task-motivated leaders will be most effective in extremely favorable or unfavorable group settings, whereas relationship-motivated leaders will be more effective in moderately favorable settings. Other models of this kind include the situational leadership theory, the substitutes for leadership theory, and the Vroom–Yetton–Jago decision model. See also cognitive resource theory.