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cognitive style

a person’s characteristic mode of perceiving, thinking, remembering, and problem solving. Cognitive styles might differ in preferred elements or activities, such as group work versus working individually, more structured versus less defined activities, or visual versus verbal encoding. Other dimensions along which cognitive styles vary include reflection–impulsivity, abstract attitude versus concrete attitude, and field dependence versus field independence. The term is also commonly used to refer to the idea that people differ with respect to the mode of learning (e.g., instruction, study) that is most effective for them. Indeed, many use the term learning style interchangeably with cognitive style, whereas others use the former more specifically to mean a person’s characteristic cognitive, affective, and psychological behaviors that influence his or her preferred instructional methods and interactions with the learning environment. Also called thinking style. See also learning types; theory of mental self-government.

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Psychology term of the day

June 16th 2024

job analysis

job analysis

the collection and analysis of information about a specific job. Data are obtained through interviews with or written questionnaires from those doing or supervising the job, or through observation or audiovisual recordings of the job in action. Important classes of information include the behaviors, tools, working conditions, and skills involved in the job. Job analysis is the first step in developing effective personnel selection, employee evaluation, job evaluation, and personnel training programs. Once data have been collected, the role of the job analyst is to use statistical techniques and subjective judgment to determine the primary dimensions of a job and to identify those positions that are sufficiently similar to be classified as the same job.