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major depressive episode

in DSM–IV–TR, a period in which an individual experiences anhedonia or is persistently sad, pessimistic, or otherwise overly negative. Additional symptoms include poor or increased appetite with significant weight loss or gain; insomnia or excessive sleep; psychomotor agitation or psychomotor retardation; loss of energy with fatigue; feelings of worthlessness or inappropriate guilt; reduced ability to concentrate or make decisions; and recurrent thoughts of death, suicidal ideation, or attempted suicide. DSM–5 retains these same symptomatic criteria but has removed its predecessor’s qualified exclusion of bereavement with respect to major depressive episode and replaced it with a broader advisory (see bereavement exclusion). One or more major depressive episodes are a characteristic feature of major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder.

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Psychology term of the day

April 17th 2024

axial gradient

axial gradient

the difference in development or metabolic rate of tissues along a body axis. See also anterior–posterior development gradient.