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job analysis

the collection and analysis of information about a specific job. Data are obtained through interviews with or written questionnaires from those doing or supervising the job, or through observation or audiovisual recordings of the job in action. Important classes of information include the behaviors, tools, working conditions, and skills involved in the job. Job analysis is the first step in developing effective personnel selection, employee evaluation, job evaluation, and personnel training programs. Once data have been collected, the role of the job analyst is to use statistical techniques and subjective judgment to determine the primary dimensions of a job and to identify those positions that are sufficiently similar to be classified as the same job.

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Psychology term of the day

December 3rd 2023

contingency theory of leadership

contingency theory of leadership

any of various models predicting that leadership performance depends on the interaction of the personal characteristics of the leader and the nature of the group situation. The prototypical contingency theory emerged from the conceptual analysis of leadership effectiveness developed by Fred Fiedler in the 1960s. Fiedler’s model differentiates between task-motivated and relationship-motivated leaders, as indicated by scores on the Least Preferred Coworker Scale, and predicts that task-motivated leaders will be most effective in extremely favorable or unfavorable group settings, whereas relationship-motivated leaders will be more effective in moderately favorable settings. Other models of this kind include the situational leadership theory, the substitutes for leadership theory, and the Vroom–Yetton–Jago decision model. See also cognitive resource theory.