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In this data set, there are nine runs. If the two samples are from the same population, then the males and females will be well mixed and the number of runs thus will be large (e.g., close to 25); if the number of runs is small, as in this example, the ordering cannot be caused by chance fluctuation and the null hypothesis thus is rejected. Also called runs test. [Abraham Wald (1902–1950), Hungarian-born mathematician; Jacob Wolfowitz (1910–1981), U.S. psychologist]